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Free Association

The home of a cofounder of the NAACP



illiam Monroe Trotter, a Harvard graduate and the first black Phi Beta Kappa, helped establish the Niagra Movement in 1905, which led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. His beliefs and tactics were models for the civil rights movement of the middle 1900s. His home, where he lived from 1899 to 1909, is a national historic landmark.



Opposed to the accommodationist racial policies of his time, William Monroe Trotter was arrested in 1903 for throwing a stink bomb into the audience during a speech by the more conservative black leader Booker T. Washington at the African Zion Church on Columbus Avenue.